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Dave W

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Everything posted by Dave W

  1. Looking at photos of "Pom-Pom Mushrooms" --ie. cultivated versions of Hericium, presumably Lion's Mane-- some look a lot like the white blobs pictured in this thread. So, I think the photos seen here are likely Hericium erinaceus. But, why do we not see photos in field guides of such white blobs that lack the long spines? I can think of two possibilities. 1. The white blobs represent a brief button stage of H. erinaceus, immature fruit bodies that have not yet developed the long spines. 2. The cultivated version of H. erinaceus is somehow different from the wild version, maybe a genetic mutation that does not change the genome enough for the DNA data to register at the level of different species? Perhaps what people are finding are fruitings of the cultivated version that have "escaped" into the wild. For many years it was said that the wild mushroom species Flammulina velutipes --with caramel-colored caps and stalks usually dark/velvety on the lower portions-- was the same species as the cultivated Enoki/Enokitake which looks like clusters of pure white bean sprouts with small caps. Even the ITS region of DNA (often called the genetic "barcode" for fungal species) for these two types of mushrooms are the same (or at least close enough to be regarded as the same species). However, data derived from other areas of the genome suggest these two types of mushroom --with vastly different appearances-- are in fact to be regarded as distinct species. The name now proposed for the cultivated Enoki is Flammulina filiformis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flammulina_filiformis . Perhaps something similar has happened with Hericium erinaceus?
  2. Almost certainly a species from the Tubaria furfuracea group; common during periods of mild weather in winter. They are found on mulch, wood chips, lawns (probably from buried material), and small forest litter. The caps start out brown but fade to nearly white when they lose moisture. Spore print is yellowish.
  3. Even with a dozen books you will likely find mushrooms not documented in any of the books. You could try creating a post on either Mushroom Observer or iNaturalist. These sites have lots of participants from all over the world. I see the latex (liquid) on the gills is white. Did it change to another color after being exposed to the air? Also, nibble/taste/spit is safe to do with milk mushrooms, in order to asses the taste. This sometimes a useful ID feature for these type mushrooms. Have some water on hand to rinse. Some of these species have an unpleasant hot/bitter/acrid taste.
  4. There are some California Agaricus species than are toxic. I don't know the species ID for the ones seen in this discussion. Agaricus species are many and tricky, many are regionally based. Here's a link to a page that contains a good cross-section of CA Agaricus species. https://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/species_index.html#1_2
  5. I don't know the Lactarius/Lactifluus species of CA. But, yours is one of these two genera. Lactifluus is a recent "split-off" genus of Lactarius. One useful ID feature seen is the scrobiculate stem surface, ie. marked by shallow potholes.
  6. Possibly an old waterlogged Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus). More information and/or photos showing additional features would help.
  7. I don't know much about cultivating fungi. I think there's another forum here at WMH devoted to this topic. Regarding the red/scarlet/orange-capped Russula mushrooms... These numerous species are mycorrhizal, meaning the fungi associate with living trees in a symbiotic relationship. At least some Russula species associate with any of a wide variety of types of trees. It is possible that several species of Russula grow in the area you mention, and they may have very similar appearance. Of the brightly-colored Russula species, none are known to be dangerously poisonous. But, some will ruin your meal because of the acrid taste, and probably also make you sick. Russula emetica is one of several species grouped together in a classification called "Russula section Emeticinae." These types are all sickeners. However, even the acrid-tasting sickeners may be rendered edible (for most people) by par-boiling in "three waters" --ie. change the water twice-- prior to preparation as food. My Polish-American grandmother used to do this. Are there any dangerously poisonous Russula species? Yes, but they are not the brightly colored ones. There's a group of dirty-whitish to gray to blackish-capped species with flesh that stains black or red-to-black. These types include species that have very bad reputations. Also, there's a group of smelly yellowish/brownish-capped Russulas that are often slimy/sticky, and these types are also to be avoided as potential edibles. So, what's my opinion of the edibility of Russula? Russula mariae --generally muted wine-red to purplish with a frosty "bloom"-- is an okay edible. R. barlae, an orange/yellow-capped one that bruises brown on the gills and stalk and has a shellfish odor, is very good. R. parvovirescens --the "quilted green Russula"-- is very good when young and firm. (Other species of green-capped Russula --R. aeruginea, R. variata, etc.-- are mediocre at best and often sour-tasting.) R. crustosa --a yellowish one similar to R. parvovirescens-- is very good. R. brunneola and R. brunneoviolacea --dark purplish-brown ones-- are very good. Members of the R. xerampelina group --variously colored, shellfish odor, brown bruising-- are very good. Once summer I decided to try eating R. compacta --cream colored caps with a brownish spray, fishy odor, brown bruising-- which is very common in my area. I ended up getting sick on these. So, what about the bright red/scarlet/orange ones? Aside from R. barlae and reddish versions of R. xerampelina, the vivid-capped ones are mediocre at best. If you want to avoid the acrid/sickener ones, then nibble/taste/spit is essential, and IMO should be done with any given fruit body. Also, I live in PA. I think there's probably quite a bit of overlap among the Russula species found here and those found in FL. But, it's also likely that some FL species are not found in PA.
  8. It would help to see this fruit body in situ, on the tree where it was found. Was the tree black locust? I think this may be Phellinus robiniae. The shape looks like it fits. also, the last photo shows what appears to be a light brown underside. I think this is the pore surface. https://www.mushroomexpert.com/phellinus_robiniae.html
  9. The red, reddish, pink, scarlet, and orange capped Russula species are numerous. Even with more information, a confident ID to species would be unlikely without a fair amount of microscopy. But, there are a few helpful traits that are not difficult to check. Percentage of the cap radius for which the cuticle (skin) peels off the cap. Taste; mild, bitter, acrid, peppery? It's safe to nibble/taste/spit a Russula mushroom. Just have some water on hand to rinse. Spore print color is sometimes useful. Take the print on a white surface, so that any deviation from white may be observed in the print. With a few Russula species odor is notable.
  10. I think at least some of these are a species of Mycena. Seeing a few entire fruit bodies --including the stems and the undersides of the caps-- would help. But, Mycena is a large difficult genus. With a few exceptions, they are difficult to distinguish to species even when lots of details are observable.
  11. More details would be necessary for a confident ID proposal. Seeing an entire harvested fruit body photographed from different perspectives would allow us to assess different features. Also, obtaining a spore print color would be very useful (use both black and white surfaces to collect the print). Some low-confidence guesses follow. Tubaria species, yellowish spore print Galerina species, rusty brown spore print (possibly dangerously poisonous if consumed) Leratiomyces, dark purplish-gray/brown (almost black) spore print Flammulina species, white spore print Pholiota species, brown spore print
  12. Is the grapevine still living? It's possible the mushrooms are the fruit bodies of some fungus that's a parasite. If so, then I don't think that removing the mushrooms will remedy the situation. On the ither hand, the fungus may be saprobic, getting its nutrients from decaying organic matter associated with a plant/tree that's already dead. If you think the mushrooms represent a harmful parasite, then maybe you should consult an arborist. I don't have a proposal for the species seen here. More information would be necessary... seeing a few entire fruit bodies that have been harvested would be a start. Photograph them from different perspectives so that all traits may be assessed. Knowing the spore print color is important. Use of a microscope would probably be required. The way they are becoming dark and slimy as they decompose suggests this is one of the "deliquescent" species in family Psathyrellaceae. The common name for these is "Inky caps". Genera are Coprinellus, Coprinopsis, Coprinus, Tulosesus, Parasola, and probably a few others. These types all have dark spore prints. Genus Psathyrella also includes species with dark prints. Mycena mushrooms (not Psathyrellaceae) have white spore prints.
  13. They look to be pretty well past prime. I think a study done a few years ago has shown there's more than one species of "jelly tooth", but I don't know any names other than Pseudohydnum gelatinosum for the grayish floppy ones that grow on coniferous wood.
  14. I agree with michele, these look like immature fruit bodies of a dark-spored species housed in a genus representing family Psathyrellaceae. Maybe genus Psathyrella, but also Candolleomyces (split off genus from Psathyrella) also looks like a possibility.
  15. Spore print color? The pale gills suggest the print may be white (or at least pale). But, these mushrooms may be immature, in which case the gills may darken along with the maturing spores. I'm in Pennsylvania. There's not a lot of overlap here with CA species.
  16. I think these may be Coprinopsis atramentraria. Not a lot to go on here... no view of an entire harvested fruit body. No view of an underside. Spore print color?
  17. Looks like a species of Coprinellus section Micacei (the "Mica Cap" species), except these types usually grow in clusters. Also, compare with species of genus Tulosesus.
  18. It would help to know what is your location. Mushroom species found in America vary quite a bit regionally. The mushrooms may be Pleurotus (Oyster Mushrooms). They look kinda old.
  19. The spore print appears to be darker brown than expected for a species of Gymnopilus, which have rusty brown/orange prints. My guess is these mushrooms represent a species of Pholiota.
  20. Also compare with Trametes lactinea. https://mushroomobserver.org/observations/260767
  21. Some type pf polypore, probably a species of Trametes. Need to see a clear detailed view of the pore surface (underside).
  22. In eastern NA there's also Stropharia hardii, a woodland mushroom that usually has a weak ring on the stalk but may drop off. I have found S. hornemannii in Vermont.
  23. Certainly a species of Hypholoma. The very dark grayish/purplish spore print confirms. I think the ones seen here are either H. capnoides or H. lateritium. The latter usually grows on wood of hardwood trees. But, I think i have seen it a few times on pine logs. Each of the species mentioned is listed as edible, and H. lateritium --commonly called "brick caps-- is fairly popular. Some people enjoy cooking/eating this species, especially when the mushrooms are young/immature. As mentioned, one should become familiar with the "sulphur tuft" species, H. fasciculare and H. subviride. These are said to be toxic, not lethal but causing possibly severe symptoms. All four of the species mentioned have the same color spore prints, and microscopic features are similar. Because of its yellowish cap color, H. capnoides is likely more easily confused with the sulphur tufts. The latter have green gills when young, but the color darkens as the spores mature. Gymnopilus penetrans (very similar to G. sapineus, and also a few other of the small/medium-sized Gymns) has a rusty-orange or rusty-brown spore print. This is quite similar to the Galerina marginata print, and I have seen examples where arriving at a Gymnopilus/Galerina ID is somewhat tricky, especially after G. marginata dries out and the cap color fades. Species of Pholiota --especially the ones that lack large scales on the caps, eg. P. spumosa-- are also easily confused with Gymnopilus. Species of Stropharia have spore prints with color very similar to those of Hypholoma. The same may be said of most Psathyrella species.
  24. A few of the Hygrophorus species that have weird/unpleasant odors should probably be avoided as candidates for edibility.
  25. The bundles of needles on the ground look like white pine; I think I see 5 needles in a bundle. H. flavodiscus is exclusively a white pine associate. Light brown stalk is unusual for H. flavodiscus, but these may be old slightly discolored mushrooms.
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